Risk of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection in Neonates

Umbilical venous catheters (UVC) or peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC), commonly used in high risk neonates, may have a threshold dwell time for subsequent increased risk of central line associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) | The Journal of Hospital Infection

Aim: To evaluate the CLABSI risks in neonates having either UVC, PICC or those having both sequentially.

Methods: Study included 3985 infants who had UVC or PICC inserted between 2007 and 2009 cared for in 10 regional Neonatal Intensive Care Units: 1392 having UVC only (Group 1), 1317 PICC only (Group 2) and 1276 both UVC and PICC (Group 3).

Results: There were 403 CLABSI among 6000 venous catheters inserted, totalling 43302 catheter days. CLABSI rates were higher in Group 3 infants who were of lowest gestation (16.9/1000 UVC days and 12.5/1000 PICC days; median 28 weeks) when compared with Group 1 (3.3/1000 UVC days; 37 weeks) and Group 2 (4.8/1000 PICC days; 30 weeks). Life table and Kaplan-Meier hazard analysis showed UVC CLABSI rate increased stepwise to 42/1000 UVC days by day 10, with the highest rate in Group 3 (85/1000 UVC days). PICC CLABSI rates remained relatively stable at 12-20/1000 PICC days. Compared to PICC, UVC had a higher adjusted CLABSI risk controlled for dwell time. Among Group 3, replacing UVC electively before day 4 may have a trend of lower CLABSI risk, than late replacement.

Conclusions: There was no cut-off duration beyond which PICC should be removed electively. Early UVC removal and replacement by PICC before day 4 could be considered.

Full reference: Sanderson, E. et al. (2017) Dwell Time and Risk of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection in Neonates. The Journal of Hospital Infection. Published online: 24 June 2017

Compliance with the current recommendations for prescribing antibiotics for paediatric community-acquired pneumonia is improving

Launay, E. at al. BMC Pediatrics | Published online: 12 August 2016


Image shows electron micrograph of klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria 

Background: Lower respiratory tract infection is a common cause of consultation and antibiotic prescription in paediatric practice. The misuse of antibiotics is a major cause of the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency, changes over time, and determinants of non-compliance with antibiotic prescription recommendations for children admitted in paediatric emergency department (PED) with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Methods: We conducted a prospective two-period study using data from the French pneumonia network that included all children with CAP, aged one month to 15 years old, admitted to one of the ten participating paediatric emergency departments. In the first period, data from children included in all ten centres were analysed. In the second period, we analysed children in three centers for which we collected additional data. Two experts assessed compliance with the current French recommendations. Independent determinants of non-compliance were evaluated using a logistic regression model. The frequency of non-compliance was compared between the two periods for the same centres in univariate analysis, after adjustment for confounding factors.

Results: A total of 3034 children were included during the first period (from May 2009 to May 2011) and 293 in the second period (from January to July 2012). Median ages were 3.0 years [1.4–5] in the first period and 3.6 years in the second period. The main reasons for non-compliance were the improper use of broad-spectrum antibiotics or combinations of antibiotics. Factors that were independently associated with non-compliance with recommendations were younger age, presence of risk factors for pneumococcal infection, and hospitalization. We also observed significant differences in compliance between the treatment centres during the first period. The frequency of non-compliance significantly decreased from 48 to 18.8 % between 2009 and 2012. The association between period and non-compliance remained statistically significant after adjustment for confounding factors. Amoxicillin was prescribed as the sole therapy significantly more frequently in the second period (71 % vs. 54.2 %, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: We observed a significant increase in the compliance with recommendations, with a reduction in the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics, efforts to improve antibiotic prescriptions must continue.

Read the full article here

Infection prevention and control in the paediatric setting: the challenges

Winzor, G. & Cooke, R.P.D. Journal of Hospital Infection. Published online: 27 July 2016
Infection prevention and control (IPC) practices within the paediatric setting pose many unique challenges which are often linked to a lack of paediatric specific research. The short report in this issue of the JHI by Araujo da Silva et al1 highlights a lack of quality studies and practice recommendations for paediatric IPC.
Read the abstract here

Model for Improvement reduced surgical site infections

An improvement collaborative implemented a care bundle to reduce surgical site infections amongst children. Over a two year period they used the Model for Improvement to develop and implement change. Organisations were encouraged to adopt all or part of the bundle. Support was provided through webinars, discussion boards, targeted messages to leaders and in-person training. Within six months, 97% of organisations were using the bundle reliably. There was a 21% reduction in surgical site infection rates, from an average of 2.5 per 100 procedures to 1.8 per 100 procedures. The reduction was sustained over the 15 month follow-up period.

Schaffzin JK, et al. Surgical site infection reduction by the Solutions for Patient Safety Hospital Engagement Network. Pediatrics. Nov;136(5)1353-60 2015.

Clinical experiences of using Biopatch: a chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated sponge dressing. Case study 3: paediatric care.

The article presents an interview with British nurse Jonathan Whitton of Nottingham Children’s Hospital. When asked about his experience of using a chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) impregnated sponge dressing, Whitton says that he found it easy to apply and remove. He comments on the role infection prevention plays in his daily nursing activities. Whitton believes that all pediatric units should review the available literature about CHG dressings.

Clinical experiences of using Biopatch: a chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated sponge dressing. Case study 3: paediatric care. Whitton J. Br J Nurs. 2014, vol 23 (14 Suppl):S22.

Clinical experiences of using Biopatch: a chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated sponge dressing. Case study 2: paediatric intensive care.

The article presents an interview with nurse Norman Franklin of Freeman Hospital in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. When asked what made him decide to use a chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) impregnated sponge dressing, he says the decision followed the publication of research on the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections. He comments on the role that infection prevention plays in his daily nursing activities. Franklin believes that using CHG sponge dressings will benefit patients.

Clinical experiences of using Biopatch: a chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated sponge dressing. Case study 2: paediatric intensive care. Franklin N. Br J Nurs. 2014, vol 23(14 Suppl):S21.