A review of recent developments in MRSA management and treatment | Critical Care
Image shows clusters of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is still a major global healthcare problem. Of concern is S. aureus bacteremia, which exhibits high rates of morbidity and mortality and can cause metastatic or complicated infections such as infective endocarditis or sepsis. MRSA is responsible for most global S. aureus bacteremia cases, and compared with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, MRSA infection is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. S. aureus virulence is affected by the unique combination of toxin and immune-modulatory gene products, which may differ by geographic location and healthcare- or community-associated acquisition.
Management of S. aureus bacteremia involves timely identification of the infecting strain and source of infection, proper choice of antibiotic treatment, and robust prevention strategies. Resistance and nonsusceptibility to first-line antimicrobials combined with a lack of equally effective alternatives complicates MRSA bacteremia treatment.
This review describes trends in epidemiology and factors that influence the incidence of MRSA bacteremia. Current and developing diagnostic tools, treatments, and prevention strategies are also discussed.
Cancer researchers may have stumbled across a solution to reverse antibiotic drug resistance and stop infections like MRSA. | Via ScienceDaily
Experts warn we are decades behind in the race against superbugs having already exploited naturally occurring antibiotics, with the creation of new ones requiring time, money and ingenuity.
But a team of scientists at the University of Salford say they may have found a very simple way forward — even though they weren’t even looking for antibiotics.
And they have created and validated several new antibiotics already — many of which are as potent, or more so, than standard antibiotics, such as amoxicillin.
“A little like Alexander Fleming, we weren’t even looking for antibiotics rather researching into new compounds that might be effective against cancer stem cells,” explains Michael P. Lisanti, Chair of Translational Medicine at the University’s Biomedical Research Centre.
“I think we’ve accidentally invented a systemic way of creating new antibiotics which is simple, cheap and could be very significant in the fight against superbugs,” added Dr Federica Sotgia, a co-author on the study.
The aim of this study by Saba, et al. (2017) was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the environments of three hospitals in Ghana | Infection Control Today
A total of 120 swab samples were taken from door handles, stair railings and other points of contact at Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale Central Hospital and Tamale West Hospital. The swab samples were directly plated on Mannitol Salt and Baird Parker agar plates and incubated at 37 °C (± 2) for 18 to 24 hours. An antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute’s guidelines. Isolates resistant to both cefoxitin and oxacillin were considered to be MRSA.
The researchers conclude that the high multi-drug resistance of MRSA in hospital environments in Ghana reinforces the need for the effective and routine cleaning of door handles in hospitals. Further investigation is required to understand whether S. aureus from door handles could be the possible causes of nosocomial diseases in the hospitals.
Evans, M.E. et al. American Journal of Infection Control. 45(1) pp. 13-16
Background: Declines in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) health care associated infections (HAIs) were previously reported in Veterans Affairs acute care (2012), spinal cord injury (SCIU) (2011), and long-term-care facilities (LTCFs) (2012). Here we report continuing declines in infection rates in these settings through September 2015.
Conclusions: MRSA HAI rates declined significantly in acute care, SCIUs, and LTCFs over 8 years of the Veterans Affairs MRSA Prevention Initiative.
Lowe, C.F. et al. American Journal of Infection Control. Published online 8 December 2016
Image shows transmission electron microscopy of vancomycin resistant enterococcus faecalis.
Background: Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is increasingly used in intensive care units to prevent hospital-associated infections, but limited evidence exists for noncritical care settings.
Conclusions: This prospective pragmatic study to assess daily bathing for CHG on inpatient medical units was effective in reducing hospital-associated MRSA and VRE. A critical component of CHG bathing on medical units is sustained and appropriate application, which can be a challenge to accurately assess and needs to be considered before systematic implementation.