Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals

Boyce, J.M. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control. Published online: 11 April 2016

https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2Fs13756-016-0111-x/MediaObjects/13756_2016_111_Fig1_HTML.gif
Image source: Boyce, J.

Image shows Contact agar plate cultures showing bacterial colonies recovered from a patient’s overbed table before (left) and after (right) the surface was cleaned by a housekeeper using contaminated quaternary ammonium disinfectant. Colonies on right are Serratia marcescens and Achromobacter xylosoxidans

Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow manufacturer’s recommendations for disinfectant use and lack of antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants against healthcare-associated pathogens may also affect the efficacy of disinfection practices.

Improved hydrogen peroxide-based liquid surface disinfectants and a combination product containing peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are effective alternatives to disinfectants currently in widespread use, and electrolyzed water (hypochlorous acid) and cold atmospheric pressure plasma show potential for use in hospitals. Creating “self-disinfecting” surfaces by coating medical equipment with metals such as copper or silver, or applying liquid compounds that have persistent antimicrobial activity surfaces are additional strategies that require further investigation.

Newer “no-touch” (automated) decontamination technologies include aerosol and vaporized hydrogen peroxide, mobile devices that emit continuous ultraviolet (UV-C) light, a pulsed-xenon UV light system, and use of high-intensity narrow-spectrum (405 nm) light. These “no-touch” technologies have been shown to reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces. A micro-condensation hydrogen peroxide system has been associated in multiple studies with reductions in healthcare-associated colonization or infection, while there is more limited evidence of infection reduction by the pulsed-xenon system. A recently completed prospective, randomized controlled trial of continuous UV-C light should help determine the extent to which this technology can reduce healthcare-associated colonization and infections.

In conclusion, continued efforts to improve traditional manual disinfection of surfaces are needed. In addition, Environmental Services departments should consider the use of newer disinfectants and no-touch decontamination technologies to improve disinfection of surfaces in healthcare.

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Triage documentation–based decision support to improve infectious disease risk screening and mitigate exposure

Barajas, G. et al. American Journal of Infection Control. Published online: 14 April 2016

Multidisciplinary focus group review of current triage practice identified gaps in identification of potentially infectious diseases. Modifications were made to triage and nursing assessment forms that were easy to maneuver, rapidly modifiable, and provided documentation-based decision support to expedite infection prevention measures. Development of a decision support infectious disease risk screening tool enhances outbreak preparedness, occupational safety, and response.

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A Model-Based Product Evaluation Protocol for Comparison of Safety-Engineered Protection Mechanisms of Winged Blood Collection Needles

Haupt, C. et al. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 2016. 37:505–511

Objective: To evaluate differences in product characteristics and user preferences of safety-engineered protection mechanisms of winged blood collection needles.

Design: Randomized model-based simulation study.

Setting: University medical center.

Participants: A total of 33 third-year medical students.

Methods: Venipuncture was performed using winged blood collection needles with 4 different safety mechanisms: (a) Venofix Safety, (b) BD Vacutainer Push Button, (c) Safety-Multifly, and (d) Surshield Surflo. Each needle type was used in 3 consecutive tries: there was an uninstructed first handling, then instructions were given according to the operating manual; subsequently, a first trial and second trial were conducted. Study end points included successful activation, activation time, single-handed activation, correct activation, possible risk of needlestick injury, possibility of deactivation, and preferred safety mechanism.

Results: The overall successful activation rate during the second trial was equal for all 4 devices (94%–100%). Median activation time was (a) 7 s, (b) 2 s, (c) 9 s, and (d) 7 s. Single-handed activation during the second trial was (a) 18%, (b) 82%, (c) 15%, and (d) 45%. Correct activation during the second trial was (a) 3%, (b) 64%, (c) 15%, and (d) 39%. Possible risk of needlestick injury during the second trial was highest with (d). Possibility of deactivation was (a) 0%, (b) 12%, (c) 9%, and (d) 18%. Individual preferences for each system were (a) 11, (b) 17, (c) 5, and (d) 0. The main reason for preference was the comprehensive safety mechanism.

Conclusion: Significant differences exist between safety mechanisms of winged blood collection needles.

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Epidemiology of Surgical Site Infection in a Community Hospital Network

Baker, A.W. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 2016. 37:519–526

Objective: To describe the epidemiology of complex surgical site infection (SSI) following commonly performed surgical procedures in community hospitals and to characterize trends of SSI prevalence rates over time for MRSA and other common pathogens

Methods: We prospectively collected SSI data at 29 community hospitals in the southeastern United States from 2008 through 2012. We determined the overall prevalence rates of SSI for commonly performed procedures during this 5-year study period. For each year of the study, we then calculated prevalence rates of SSI stratified by causative organism. We created log-binomial regression models to analyze trends of SSI prevalence over time for all pathogens combined and specifically for MRSA.

Results: A total of 3,988 complex SSIs occurred following 532,694 procedures (prevalence rate, 0.7 infections per 100 procedures). SSIs occurred most frequently after small bowel surgery, peripheral vascular bypass surgery, and colon surgery. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen. The prevalence rate of SSI decreased from 0.76 infections per 100 procedures in 2008 to 0.69 infections per 100 procedures in 2012 (prevalence rate ratio [PRR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82–1.00). A more substantial decrease in MRSA SSI (PRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54–0.89) was largely responsible for this overall trend.

Conclusions: The prevalence of MRSA SSI decreased from 2008 to 2012 in our network of community hospitals. This decrease in MRSA SSI prevalence led to an overall decrease in SSI prevalence over the study period.

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Staphylococcus aureus dry-surface biofilms are not killed by sodium hypochlorite: implications for infection control

Almatroudi, A. et al. Journal of Hospital Infection. Published online: 12 April 2016

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Image source: Wellcome Images // CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0

Image shows Staphylococcus aureus – macro photo x 10 of culture, characteristic gold/yellow colonies.

Background: Dry hospital environments are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria in biofilms, which suggests that current cleaning practices and disinfectants are failing.

Aim: To test the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite solution against Staphylococcus aureus dry-surface biofilms.

Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Biofilm Reactor was adapted to create a dry-surface biofilm, containing 1.36×107 S. aureus/coupon, by alternating cycles of growth and dehydration over 12 days. Biofilm was detected qualitatively using live/dead stain confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and quantitatively with sonicated viable plate counts and crystal violet assay. Sodium hypochlorite (1000 to 20,000 parts per million) was applied to the dry-surface biofilm for 10 min, coupons were rinsed three times, and residual biofilm viability was determined by CLSM, plate counts and prolonged culture up to 16 days. Isolates before and after exposure underwent minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum eradication concentration (MEC) testing, and one pair underwent whole-genome sequencing.

Findings: Hypochlorite exposure reduced plate counts by a factor of 7 log10, and reduced biofilm biomass by a factor of 100; however, staining of residual biofilm showed that live S. aureus cells remained. On prolonged incubation, S. aureus regrew and formed biofilms. Post-exposure S. aureus isolates had MICs and MECs that were not significantly different from the parent strains. Whole-genome sequencing of one pre- and post-exposure pair found that they were virtually identical.

Conclusions: Hypochlorite exposure led to a 7-log kill but the organisms regrew. No resistance mutations occurred, implying that hypochlorite resistance is an intrinsic property of S. aureus biofilms. The clinical significance of this warrants further study.

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